Who are the Lumbee and Who am I?

Who is my tribe?  That question has long fascinated me.  Family history research only takes me so far.  Now there is another tool in my search.  DNA testing.

Ancestry.com recently offered its  members a DNA test for a cost of $99.  In the blink of an eye, I paid my money and received a packet in the mail to begin the process. My saliva sample was sent back to Ancestry.com by return mail.   I now wait approximately 6 weeks. Then I will see whether a DNA test will actually help unlock the secrets of my heritage.

I have some experience with the power of DNA evidence.  Experts tell us they can determine from a saliva specimen, or blood or sweat, the one person in history who could have committed a crime down the block last Saturday night.  Seriously.  But can such a test tell me about my own past?  Can it tell me when my Mesle ancestors left France?  I don’t know?  Can it tell me whether I have Jewish ancestors?  I will see.

Can it tell me whether I am descended from the Lumbee tribe in the North Carolina?  Yes.  I think so. Why do I believe I can learn whether I am part Lumbee and what that really means?  Simple.  If I am part Lumbee, through Morris Teeter, my DNA should include markers distinctively associated with a Lumbee heritage.

But what is a Lumbee heritage?  I first heard of the Lumbees less than a year ago while researching my mother’s family line.  The tribal origins are unclear.  Lumbees are recognized as a Native American tribe by North Carolina but not by the federal government. They are not primarily descended from European stock–like all of my other known ancestors.  My Lumbee markers would almost certainly include evidence of Native American ancestors.  But my DNA could also provide some evidence as to whether the Lumbee tribe is pure Native American blood, or whether their ancestors–and  mine–are from a mix of races who created their own unique culture and ethnicity hundreds of years ago.

So, who is my tribe?  Does it matter?  Does it make me any difference to an understanding of who I am?  What about the Lumbee?  I don’t know.  But, maybe it does.  I will let you know when I figure it out.

____________________

Our blog does not represent the opinions of our family, our friends or our employers.

According to Wikipedia, the above photograph of members of the Lumbee tribe is in the public domain.

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45 responses to “Who are the Lumbee and Who am I?

    • The Picture above is a posed picture of a Redmans Fraternal Lodge ,Redmans lodges was an organization for “Whites only” that sometimes dressed in generic indian garments ,makeup and wore Wigs for long hair which can been seen upon examination of this picture.
      Indians were prohibited from joining these Clubs as they were for Whites only in those years so logic dictates anyone in the Lodge pictures are not indians but whites playing Lodge Indians.This picture does not constitute native american ancestry but is actually proof of non-indian origins.
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Improved_Order_of_Red_Men
      In 1886 its membership requirements were defined in the same pseudo-Indian phrasing as the rest of the constitution:
      “ Sec. 1. No person shall be entitled to adoption into the Order except a free” white male” of good moral character and standing, of the full age of twenty-one great suns, who believes in the existence of a Great Spirit, the Creator and Preserver of the Universe, and is possessed of some known reputable means of support.[3]

  1. Mam, im Lumbee and im pretty sure you dont seem to have in Lumbee roots. From your examples on where your from, have e to think your white. Also and mainly the picture pretty much shows your just an white; but you have all rights to look and see where you desecend.

    • It is great to hear from you. I have hoped to connect with someone who is a member of the Lumbee Tribe. Since my ancestor is apparently buried in Cummings Cemetery I wonder whether there were pioneers who lived with members of the tribe even though they were not members. The Lumbee culture seems fascinating to me even though it is difficult to find a lot of detailed information about its history. So thanks for your comment.

  2. My father is a lumbee member i grew up with out knowledge of my family. After 40 years growing up wondering about my father’s lumbee family. I went to my hometown in Robenson NC. Reunited with him but still iam. very confused about my ancestos. am i of Indian. What. blood test souls i take

    • It is great to hear from you. The origins of the Lumbee have been much debated. There can be no denying that the people of the tribe have developed a rich culture that distinguishes them from their neighbors.

  3. there are serious problems with the tribal and individual

    identity of the Lumbee.

    Credible experts in the area of genealogy, who

    are not affiliated with the Eastern Band, have reached a conclusions concerning Lumbee identity that should not

    ignore.

    Paul Heinegg, whose work has been recognized by The American

    Society of Genealogists, concludes that the Lumbee are an invented

    North Carolina Indian tribe, and that many of the

    persons who first self-identified as Indian in Robeson County, North

    Carolina, are not of Indian ancestry.

    Land patents and deeds filed with the colonial administrations of Virginia, North and South Carolina during this period show that individuals now claimed as Lumbee ancestors migrated from Virginia, where they were born, into southern North Carolina in colonial times along the typical routes of migration with other pioneers from Virginia.[11] They obtained land deeds in the same manner as any other migrants.[11] Research in court, tax, indenture and other records in Virginia has shown that most of these mixed-race ancestors were free in the colonial years;

    the large majority were descendants of free white women (and the children took their status under the Virginia law of partus sequitur ventrem) and African men, who were indentured servants, free or slaves.[11] In the first federal census of 1790, the ancestors of the Lumbee were enumerated as Free Persons of Color.[12]

    • Thank you. I have read similar data in the past. I do not intend to offend any Lumbee and certainly recognize that the information that my ancestors include members of the Lumbee “tribe” may be in error. Nonetheless, for those who pay attention to DNA, I think my results are of some interest.

    • I have a few things to say about this ridiculous theory. First, if settlers traveled from Virginia to southern NC. Where there not Native people already living in both places? Native people highly populated the east coast during the times of the first settlers. How does one group of people move from one location to another and have no contact with the Native people? You can’t describe the entire people from a small group of people.

  4. genealogist heinegg and Demarce SAYS lumbee is a invented indian tribe and it does appear they were invented long ago by political lobbying in NC.

    BUT THE LUMBEE HAVE NO INDIAN CULTURE

    ,NO INDIAN HISTORY,

    NO Archaic INDIAN LANGUAGE OR CUSTOMS

    ,NO INDIAN NAMES OR EVEN PLACE NAMES AND

    NO RESERVATION AND

    NO TREATYS, ADDED WITH

    NO TRUE GENEALOGY CONNECTION TO ANY HISTORICAL INDIAN TRIBE AND THEY HAVE CHANGED NAMES IDENTITY ATLEAST 6 TIMES ADDED WITH

    NO INDIAN DNA AND Moved there from other locations not as a tribe as Individual regular citizens,having never been tribal.
    DOES NOT EQUATE TO A TRIBE CONSIDERED A SOVEREIGN INDIAN NATION FUNDED BY THE US AND TAX DOLLARS

    AFTER ALL WHAT DAMAGE HAVE WE REALLY OWE TO THEM AS INDIANS SINCE THEY WERE NEVER REALLY EVEN CONSIDERED AS INDIANS ANYWAY?

    DIDNT THEY JUST LIVE AS REGULAR COLONIAL CITIZENS SAME AS EVERYONE ELSES ANCESTORS AS MULATTOS IN TOWNS PAYING TAXES AS CITIZENS OF THEIR STATE NC?

  5. Yes so what were your DNA results .the Lumbee have not yielded any significant Native DNA all test done on Lumbee have come back R1 european and L3 african.

    the mulungeon who are same as the lumbee recently yielded on balack and white DNA only and no native DNA,the inidan story allot of times are romantic and mythical often used to hide some other origins shrouded in mystery,you should read the mulungeon results if you think you are Lumbee related.

    http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/05/24/melungeon-dna-study-origin_n_1544489.html

    Now a new DNA study in the Journal of Genetic Genealogy attempts to separate truth from oral tradition and wishful thinking. The study found the truth to be somewhat less exotic: Genetic evidence shows that the families historically called Melungeons are the offspring of sub-Saharan African men and white women of northern or central European origin

    • I have no African DNA, but I do have Middle Eastern and Southern European DNA. These are in addition to predominantly British Isles and Northern European DNA. I have heard it suggested tha many ships included sailors who were dark skinned Middle Easterners. Certainly some Spanish and Portuguese ( for example) could also be dark skinned.
      This naturally doesn’t preclude the possibility that people with darker skin might congregate in groups with others of dark skin. So I would not be surprised if studies found that Africans, Arabs, Southern Europeans and Native Americans lived in close proximity to each other in North Carolina and elsewhere. This might be particularly likely if they married Light skinned women who could easily have become estranged from their birth families. The DNA results of their descendants could vary dramatically.

      I find the new DNA tests to be fascinating and also believe there is a lot to learn before we attempt to oversimplify the findings. So I am open to all sorts of further research.

      • On the same theory that you’ve stated, then all of north Africa must be a mix of black Africans and white Europeans? What would Syria, Egypt, Libia, etc have to say about that?

  6. Very interesting results indeed but does however confirm other genealogist findings and historical records of spanisn,portuguese sailors ,arab sailors and other middle eastern people having been ship wrecked in the area coastal fo NC and Virginia exotic indeed but yours also confirms the scottish origins as gaelic was the first official language of Robeson County North Carolina
    and the natives colonial census surveys list No Indians(0) in that area(extinct)along with Welsh colonial timber surveys which stated “No Hostile Indians ,”infact no Indians to be found at all”.
    Mostly all the Native American were way further west towards lancaster county(catawba) NC and The Cherokee areas early in colonial history having been small in number from the start and disease decimated whole tribes.Not to say that a very small fractionally mixed people didnt survive but not enough to form the so called 60,000 Indians the lumbee claim to be and they claim their ancestors were all atleast half-indian in the 1930,s,seems very unlikely,but they were considered Negros not Indians but i think allot later during jim crow answered Indian to census takers to avoid being labeled of african ancestry.below is a 1872 new York Times Herald article on the Lumbee area(Pembroke)where the lumbee ancestors had a massed.

  7. Their only evidence of descent from a known historic tribe is oral tradition,

    and there is extensive, published genealogical evidence that proves they primarily are descended from free African-American landowners and slaves that migrated to Robeson County along the same routes and methods as all other colonial settlers dating back to the colonial era.

    While people have every right to re-define themselves as Indians, if they want to obtain the benefits that come from full federal recogntion and acknowledgement,

    they need to prove descent from an historic tribe that has had a treaty relationship with the United States.”

    views Dubious Descent more
    by David Cohen
    This is the title page and table of contents of a draft of a book about federal recognition and tribes that only have an oral tradition of descent from an historic Indian tribe SUCH AS THE LUMBEE

  8. from the 1872 new York times article when it was scuffleton,NC

    THE MULATTO CAPITOL” Pembroke NC(and goes on to further clear this up with a definition,not my words but news facts of local and national 1872 era papers)new york herald 1872,

    “AN IMEMMORIAL FREE NEGRO SETTLEMENT”
    THE LARGEST IN THE USA AND NORTH CAROLINA, Scuffleton(PEMBROKE)ROBESON COUNTY
    “AN HOMOGENOUS “NEGRO COMMUNITY”
    “AN HOMOGENOUS “NEGRO COMMUNITY”
    IT FURTHER STATE FREE SLAVES OF TORRIES AND QUAKERS HAVING MULTIPLIED WITH RUNAWAYS SINCE COLONIAL TIMES FORMED THIS COMMUNITY.

    IF LUMBEE IT WAS A LARGE TRIBE OF INDIANS THERE THEY WOULD OF STATED THAT,

    IT FUTHER GIVES POPULATION STATS AND
    SAYS OF THE FULL BLOODED INDIANS “NONE”(0) WERE IN ROBESON COUNTY BUT ALL WERE FURTHER WEST NEAR THE MOUNTAINS.

    PEMBROKE NC,“AN HOMOGENOUS “NEGRO COMMUNITY” NEW YORK HERALD 1872 of course the Lumbee angling for a Casino will tell you otherwise but their bill for fdereal recognition has been rejected over 11 times by congress and they the Lumbee identified as “Cherokee” for over 40 years.

  9. BEFORE CONGRESS 4 TIMES,AT the request of the Lumbee delegation before congress Lumbee swore to be cherokee of their own free will and knowledge! fabricated by the then lumbee delegation!

    1. After the first failed attempt to be recognized as Croatan failed in 1900 ……….This bill did not pass.

    2.1910(January 24)Introduction of a Federal bill in the U.S.House of Representatives to change the tribes name from”Croatan to”Cherokee”at the request of the Croatans(lumbee)

    THE BILL DID NOT PASS

    3. 1913(July 10)Introduction of another federal bill in the U.S. Senate to”change the tribes name from Indians of Robeson County to”Cherokee Indians”of Robeson County”by the Lumbee

    THE BILL DID NOT PASS

    4. 1924 (March 20)Introduction of a bill again in the U.S. House to change the tribal name to”Cherokee”by the lumbee

    THE BILL DID NOT PASS

    5. 1932(May 9).A federal bill was introduced in the U.S.Senate to”RECOGNIZE AND ENROLL the tribe as”Cherokee Indians”at the request of the lumbee(croatan)council.

    THE BILL DID NOT PASS

    In 1934,the future Lumbee revived their claim to Cherokee identity,joining the National Congress of American Indians under the name,Cherokee Indians of Robeson County

    Iin 1957 the congress after lobbying by the Lumbee allowed the Lumbee to call themselves the Lumbee with no indian benefits on the federal level and barred the Lumbee from applying with the BIA as indians this was called the Lumbee bill, a political compromise

  10. The name Lumbee was invented in 1957 after the Lumber River nicknamed Lumbee River by the Scottish it is beleived by credible experts.

    the Lumbee however say it means Black after the Lumber River in a Lost Indian language. go figure???

    • Thanks for your comments. I have only read through page 6 of your most recent attachment. I am getting ready to drive to Saline County, Mo. Today (to find the cemeteries of other ancestors). I want you to know I am grateful for all your information. I am very respectful of the theory that a tribe can be created in many different ways. In many ways I agree with that concept. It is comparable to any no traditional family.

      Since my interest in my family history is based on an interest In understanding the origins of my own family, it is especially significant. I believe a mix of people can come together, perhaps sue to their own hardships, and create a truly interconnected community that becomes for all social purposes, a tribe.

      But obviously, the U.S. recognition of Indian Gribes is not designs to recognize a socially create community. It is a precursor to giving them benefits, including the ability to own casinos, enact separate laws, etc. These special rights are designed, at least in part, to compensate native Americans for the original taking of their lands. that certainly changes the discussion drom a social and anthropolic discussion to a more legal determination of the community’s origins. it is certainlyreasonable that the tribes receiving that recognition establish that they are actually Native American.

      I certainly an outsider to the emotions, or the financial, aspects of that discussion. My Lumbee ancestors are only minuscule contributors in my DNA. Under any circumstances, there would be no casinos for me!

      • I heard of them when they were applying for federal recognition a few years back as i am a graduate student in Anthropology and they had some Casino flap a few years back . I am native American from Arizona so i did a little research about them which expanded to allot of research and i followed their quest for federal recog but it seems that they in my opinion and that of researchers and historians,and prominent genealogist are not of native American ancestry or atleast nothing or any theory that holds up under research, most of the information stating that they are some kinda tribe all comes from Lumbee members or lumbee websites and affilates not historical documents and they do stand to gain monetarialy from recognition especially these days.
        but they still are interesting to see how a group that never identified as Indian historically and only recently have converted their origins to native American by Political means and political lobbying..

  11. A Real Indian nation does not have to be created as it already existed ,any group needing to be created by the federal government and cannot pass the BIA is obviously lacking in tradition of indian culture and proof so even if you may of had some minute ancestry it doesnt make one wothry of the Federal recognition as a nation no matter how many people claim to be part of it,these days and in the recent pass its all been about some benefit to gain, not true heritage.and the lumbee obviuosly have some issue proving their claim.

    • Thank you for your comment. If I look at the issue totally separate from the issue of casinos, it is fascinating to try to understand what brought the Lumbees together. Native American or not, they do seem to have developed a unique culture. I admire that.

    • White people kill me. If its in a book it must be true huh? Feel the same about the Bible to don’t cha? If its on the internet, does it make it true? Why does the Lumbee or any other Native American for that matter bother so many people? Since I never get a straight answer, I will have to ask God when I see him.

      • why does this matter there should never be such a thing as race. we are all god’s people. thanks to the goverament who tried to kill off all the natives all history was lost. I read the book wounding knee and I know there were millions of natives kills and what is left deserved to be taken care of and to have health insurance, and a better life. I know of the lumbee tribe and I don’t want them to get a cacino, my prayer is for them to have a better life and live longer.

      • How nicely stated. I believe that none of us has any reason to hold ourselves out as superior due to race. Or religion, and certainly not due to sex.

        But I do wonder where my freckles come from, why I have never felt connected to my German heritage and why some people are so religiously inclined while others are not.

        Does that interest you? Just curious.

  12. YES THEY DID DEVELOPE A CULTURE SAME AS OTHER TRI RACIAL ISOLATES IN THE UNITED STATES NOT ALONE LIKE CAJUNS, REDBONES,BLACK DUTCH,MULUNGEONS AND SO FORTH AND IT IS FASCINATING TO OBSERVE HOW THEY CAME ABOUT WITHOUT ANYONE TRYING TO REAK A BENEFIT BUT TO ENJOY THE HOSTORY OF IT ALL BUT THESE DAYS EVERYBODYS OUT FOR THE DOLLAR OR SOMETHING FREE AND ITS GREAT WE NOW HAVE DNA TO ANSWER THE UN-CERTAIN.

  13. the Lumbee have not yielded any significant Native DNA all test done on Lumbee have come back R1 european and L3 african.

    the mulungeon who are same as the lumbee recently yielded on balack and white DNA only and no native DNA,the inidan story allot of times are romantic and mythical often used to hide some other origins shrouded in mystery,you should read the mulungeon results if you think you are Lumbee related.

    http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/05/24/melungeon-dna-study-origin_n_1544489.html

    Now a new DNA study in the Journal of Genetic Genealogy attempts to separate truth from oral tradition and wishful thinking. The study found the truth to be somewhat less exotic: Genetic evidence shows that the families historically called Melungeons are the offspring of sub-Saharan African men and white women of northern or central European origin

    • I’m lumbee and proud! I am slightly offended by some comments on here but everyone had their own opinion. Growing up I have been taught many things regarding our history. We did change our tribal name many times. If you research we were recognized but weren’t given all rights that other tribes have. I was taught that we were once the croatoan tribe and took in the lost colony which is why our native language had been lost. One newspaper article does not sum up all of history. I’d suggest you do some research to learn more for yourself.

    • This is the most ridiculous thing I have ever read. You can not take blood from one or two people and base that theory on all the people. In the scientific world the data would inconclusive. Meaning it is wrong. Where were the Lumbees who supplied the blood from? Baltimore? They didn’t get my blood or any body I know in Pembroke. Are all white peoples DNA the same? Of course not! Furthermore, your computers don’t have anything to compare our DNA to.

      Several of my late family members have had there blood taken back in the 1930’s by the US Government to satisfy their need to know. As well as to work on the Indian Reorganization Act. With whatever standards of testing they had then gave them enough. They really thought they killed us all or moved us to Oklahoma.

      The truth is it all boils down to money and the “Foot Rug Petition.” The US Goverment doesn’t want that information to be known. Publications to tarnish the Lumbee name is an ongoing thing. The Lumbee Bill will pass soon. We don’t have nothing to prove to America. We will never forget the horror that took place on our ancestors and what continues to happen today.

  14. It’s funny how Lumbee’s want to cling on to that small trace (if it exists) of Native blood but do not recognize their white or black blood which is plentiful. I have been around tons of Native Americans and dated several Native men and been around tons of Lumbees and I can tell you Lumbees are about as Native American as Ronald Reagan was. Even other Natives call them out on their foolishness. I’m on a Native Facebook page and when a Lumbee posts pictures or whatever they get torn up by Native Americans.

  15. Wow, sounds like you got a whole lot of redundant usless internet information about the Lumbee. The best way to find out about a culture and it’s heritage is to submerse yourself in it. And then make a call.

    I am Lumbee, so I can make this statement. I know the culture, history, traditions, and legacy. We have land grants that were given to us from England. Our ancestors were hard working people who owned land/farms and taught the Europeans and African’s how to farm it. We taught them about our indigenous crops that only grew here and we also shared with them our knowledge of medicinal and herbal plants. The same traditions that were passed down to me. This knowledge of the land and it’s resources cannot be passed down from generation to generation from folks who have know clue about it. This information came from our ancestral source, the only way one can obtain it.

    As for the Lumbee we are a combination of many tribes. Just like what exist today. And for some of you that don’t understand that just look at tribes as being like families. These families intermarried with other tribes which is been very normal. It is considered a disgrace to marry one relatives. The Lumbee are of Iroquis, Algonquin, and Souian Descent. Our unique accent cannot be compared to any other English accent. We still have some Native words that are mixed with English. Just like any other conquered people we were force to speak the English language, practice Christianity, and many of our traditions stripped from us. We had to assimalate or die. Luckily for us our grandparents kept some traditions that were masked in everyday life, but the majority was lost. Our ancestors did this to protect future generations from ethnic cleansing and genocide. They did what the had to do because of that we are successful.

    Someone mentioned there is no official document ever stating that the Lumbee Indians of Robeson were Indians. I beg to differ. I have US census records with my paternal grandparents listed as Indian. My Great Grandparents are listed as Indian. on their Birth certificants. We have a land grant from England proir to the separation and creation of the United States given to our people and the list goes on and on. We know who we are, and we can prove it. Even through DNA. I know, because I had it done. YEAP, just to clarify I am 87% Native American, and a small percentage of Irish and Sub-Sahran. That is very good odds dontcha think? So before your read someone else’s internet junk you should research first.

    As for federal recognition, we were not denied because we couldn’t prove it, we have tons of proof, we were denied for several reason. One important reason is that the Cherokee petitioned the government to not gives us recognition in fear that it would affect them since they are federally recognize. This was just a scared tactic used against the Cherokee and it worked.

    For our accomplishment, we are decorated people. We were the first to establish an all Indian College, First Indian owned bank, first to create Alpha Pi Omega Sorority

    Also before I leave I want to add that during the Revolutionary War there we many people that sought refuge with the Lumbee community. It intrigues me when folks refer to slavery as a African only thing. Well this is not true. It is common knowledge that England sent indentured servants to the America’s and they were white mainly consisting of Scotish and Irish decent and usually considered as criminals according to England. A lot of these slaves escaped and sought refuge in our community. This is where the European decent came from. It wasn’t until much later that a few escaped African slaves found us. As a matter of fact the Spanish brought them here along with some Arab men (Sub-Saharian) from Morocco who had been hired to navigate the Spanish ships. Once Spain lost to England many of the non-Spanish were abandoned. These people knew nothing about this new and strange land, so they to had to seek out and find refuge in a community that did. That was us.

  16. Wow fascinating!! I just stumbled across knowledge of the Lumbee tribe while because I hit a dead end on Ancestry.com researching my family, surname Tetter. It was suggested that as an african american I look in other records such and plantation names and found a thread that led me info on the Lumbee and eventually this thread. Don’t know if I’ll be able to prove I’m related to Morris Tetter of Robeson County, NC but this is dry interesting none the less! If anyone can help me I’d appreciate. I’m trying to find a link between my 3rd great grandfather Matthew Joseph Tetter of Edgecombe, NC and a Pinkey Tetter. My theory is that she maybe the granddaughter of Morris but not his daughter Winnie’s child. Thanks for letting me post and good luck with your journey!

  17. I totally understand your desire to know your ancestory. I find it fascinating that you have never heard of the second largest American Indian Tribe in the US. I am Lumbee. This is the name we call ourselves today. There is a vast history that is associated with the name Lumbee. Before 1956, we were known as many other names. Thanks to the late Adolph Dial, the name Lumbee can be associated with our location in Robeson County, NC. In fact the Federal Government has recognized us as a tribe, but denied full status for several reason. I in fact find it very amusing that we need the governments approval to be who we are.

    What most people don’t know is the Lumbee can have ancestory to several existing and non existing tribes. As well as early settlers. Like myself, most can trace their ancestory to the Tuscarora. With the Indian removal act in place, those native people were able conceal them selves in the swamps of the area and still survive to this day.

    • There are serious problems with the tribal and individual identity of the Lumbee claimants.
      Credible Prominent experts in the area of genealogy, who
      have reached a conclusions concerning Lumbee identity that should not ignore.

      Dr.Paul Heinegg, whose work has been recognized by The American
      Society of Genealogists is an Award winning prominent researcher and Genealogist along with Genealogist Dr.Demarce concludes that the Lumbee are an invented North Carolina Indian tribe, and that many of the
      persons who first self-identified as Indian in Robeson County, North Carolina, are not of Indian ancestry.
      Primary sources such as Land patents and deeds filed with the colonial administrations of Virginia, North and South Carolina during this period show that individuals now claimed as Lumbee ancestors migrated from Virginia, where they were born, into southern North Carolina in colonial times along the typical routes of migration with other pioneers from Virginia. They obtained land deeds in the same manner as any other migrants. Research in court, tax, indenture and other records in Virginia has shown that most of these mixed-race ancestors were free in the colonial years;
      the large majority were descendants of free white women (and the children took their status under the Virginia law of partus sequitur ventrem) and African men, who were indentured servants, free or slaves.In the first federal census of 1790, the ancestors of the Lumbee were enumerated as Free Persons of Color

      • Thanks for your information. How do you have an interest in the Lumbee?

        When I wrote my post on the Lumbee I had no idea i was dealing with a subject that was so hotly contested. I can certainly understand that settlers who did not have Western European ties could end up in settlements with others in similar circumstances. I also can assume their origins were not all the same. My DNA test results indicate I have some Southern European DNA which would have been outside the norm. I have no apparent Native American DNA. I so recognize DNA test results are not conclusive.

        I am truly fascinated by my genealogy, but don’t care particularly what heritage I find in my background.

  18. I read with interest all the comments on the subject of the Lumbee Tribe. I think some of the comments made during colonial & post days would have been made with the racist attitudes or prejudice prevailing at the time. There would have been a strong bias towards denying a rightful claim from a small number of native people, especially if there other people associating with them at the time.
    I have had my own full MTDNA & YDNA 111 tested with FAMILYTREE DNA which gave me some very intriguing results. I have MTDNA HVR1 Ancestral origins to 45
    different countries, amongst them a small percentage of Native American DNA. This very much intrigued me. But as I have many matches in the Sthn & Eastern States of USA, I scouted around and found the Lumbee Tribe. I didn’t think it was going to go any where, but this week I found 2 ladies from the Lumbee Tribe with whom I have a match!!! So, here I am many thousands of kilometres away with a bit of Native American DNA

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